Decoding Standards: The ABCs of EV Charging Protocols

Gain an in-depth understanding of the protocols and standards that govern EV charging technology. Unveil the standards with us!

What are EV Charging Protocols?

EV charging protocols are sets of rules and guidelines that dictate how an electric vehicle communicates with a charging station. These protocols ensure safety, compatibility, and efficiency when charging an electric vehicle, thereby giving users a seamless experience and enabling widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

Types of Charging Protocols

There are several different charging protocols available for use, with the most common falling under three primary categories:

  • Level 1 (Slow Charging)
  • This is the most basic and standard type of charging, which can be done using a regular household outlet (110-120V). Level 1 charging methods typically take longer to charge a vehicle but are convenient for users without access to a dedicated charging station.
  • Level 2 (Fast Charging)
  • Level 2 charging uses 240V and higher currents to replenish an EV’s battery more quickly than Level 1 charging. Many public charging stations and home-based chargers utilize Level 2 charging methods.
  • DC Fast Charging (Ultra-fast Charging)
  • These charging stations use direct current (DC) and high voltages (typically 400V or higher) to rapidly charge EVs - up to 80% in as little as 30 minutes. Due to their speed, DC fast chargers are often found along major highways to facilitate long-distance travel.

Popular EV Charging Protocols


Originating from Japan, CHAdeMO is a DC fast charging protocol supported by major automotive brands such as Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Kia. With over 25,000 public stations worldwide, it has a wide user base, especially in Asia[^1^].

Combined Charging System (CCS)

Developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), CCS is a popular EV charging protocol in the US and Europe. This system combines both AC and DC charging capabilities, providing Level 2 and DC fast charging options through a single port. Major automakers such as BMW, Volkswagen, and General Motors support CCS.

Tesla Supercharger

Tesla's proprietary charging protocol provides ultra-fast charging exclusively for Tesla EVs. As of October 2021, there were over 3,100 Tesla Supercharger stations worldwide. The Tesla Supercharger network continues to expand, with planned availability for other EVs in the future.

IEC 62196 / Type 2 (Mennekes)

The IEC 62196, also known as Type 2 or Mennekes connector, is a common European charging standard utilizing both single and three-phase AC supplies. It has quickly become the standard for Level 2 charging in Europe, as well as being adopted in other markets.

Considerations When Choosing an EV Charging Protocol

When choosing an EV charging protocol, consider factors such as:

  • Geographical location - Different regions may use specific protocols more frequently.
  • Vehicle compatibility - Ensure your EV is compatible with the charging protocol you plan to use.
  • Availability of charging infrastructure - Research the availability of charging stations for a specific protocol in your area.
  • Charging speed requirements - When traveling long distances, fast charging options may be more essential.


EV charging protocols play a crucial role in the widespread adoption and usability of electric vehicles. By understanding the differences between these protocols, businesses and consumers can make informed decisions about their charging needs. Incorporating EV charging solutions into your operations enables you to stay at the forefront of innovation while making a positive impact on the environment.

How Can ZORP Help?

ZORP's technology platform helps businesses optimize their operations by implementing cutting-edge solutions, including the integration of EV charging technology. By leveraging ZORP's expertise, you can develop applications to manage charging infrastructure, gain insights into usage patterns, and improve operational efficiency as electric vehicles become more prominent.


  • How do I find a charging station for my EV?
  • Check with your vehicle manufacturer for a list of compatible charging stations, or use mobile apps and websites that locate charging stations based on the preferred charging protocol.
  • Are EV charging stations universal?
  • While many charging stations may support multiple protocols, not all EVs can use every type of charging station. Be sure to verify compatibility before planning a route or charging.
  • Do I need to purchase any additional equipment to charge my EV?
  • This depends on your vehicle. Some EVs come with charging equipment for use with Level 1 or Level 2 charging, but others may require the purchase of a separate charger.
  • Can I use a Tesla Supercharger for my non-Tesla EV?
  • Currently, Tesla's Supercharger network is only available for use with Tesla vehicles. However, the company has discussed plans to make its charging network compatible with other EVs in the future.
  • Will there be a standardization of EV charging protocols anytime soon?
  • While there has been progress in recent years toward standardizing EV charging protocols, it is still uncertain whether a single global standard will emerge. However, initiatives such as CCS aim to provide increased compatibility and simplicity for users.

[^1^]: CHAdeMO Association

Explore the profit and power behind the business models of EV charging infrastructure in our insightful blog. Uncover the strategies and innovations shaping the future of electric vehicle charging networks. Read more: Profit and Power: Business Models of EV Charging Infrastructure.

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