The Ultimate Guide to Order Management

A detailed guide to understand how order management in supply chain works. Understand terms, workflows and optimizations in an easy way.

What is Order Management? 

Order management is the comprehensive process of overseeing and coordinating all activities involved in fulfilling customer orders, from order placement to delivery. It is the backbone of any e-commerce or retail business, ensuring efficient operations, minimizing errors, and enhancing customer satisfaction by streamlining order workflows, inventory control, and fulfillment processes.

 At its core, effective order management revolves around three key pillars: 

1. Process Optimization: Identifying and refining every step in the order lifecycle to maximize efficiency, reduce bottlenecks, and eliminate redundancies.

2. Data Visibility: Leveraging real-time data and analytics to gain insights into order patterns, inventory levels, and performance metrics, enabling informed decision-making and continuous improvement.

3. System Integration: Seamlessly connecting various systems and channels involved in order management, such as e-commerce platforms, marketplaces, warehousing solutions, and shipping carriers, for a unified and streamlined experience.

By mastering order management, businesses can not only meet but exceed customer expectations, foster loyalty, and drive growth. It is a critical component of delivering a superior customer experience while optimizing operational costs and resource utilization.

Types of Orders

In today's dynamic business landscape, customers have diverse needs and preferences, resulting in various order types. Understanding these variations is crucial for effective order management and tailoring fulfillment processes accordingly. Here are some common examples:


A backorder occurs when customer demand exceeds available inventory. Instead of canceling the order, businesses can choose to backorder it, fulfilling the order once stock becomes available. This strategy helps retain customers and maintain sales, albeit with the potential risk of extended wait times and potential dissatisfaction if not managed properly.

Effective backorder management involves transparent communication with customers, providing accurate estimated ship dates, and offering alternatives or incentives to compensate for the delay.


Preorders allow customers to purchase products before their official release or restock, helping businesses gauge demand and secure sales in advance. This approach is particularly common in industries such as consumer electronics, gaming, and fashion, where product launches generate significant hype and anticipation. 

Businesses must carefully manage preorder workflows, accurately forecasting demand, securing sufficient inventory from suppliers, and communicating realistic delivery timeframes to customers. Efficient order management during the preorder phase can translate into a successful product launch and loyal customer base.

Indent Order

An indent order is a unique request for a product not currently stocked by the supplier or manufacturer. This type of order is often customized, requiring additional lead time for sourcing, production, or assembly. Indent orders are prevalent in industries such as industrial equipment, specialty goods, or niche markets.

Effective order management for indent orders involves close coordination with suppliers, accurate lead time estimation, and transparent communication with customers regarding delivery timelines. Additionally, businesses may need to implement specific workflows for order tracking, quality control, and specialized packaging or shipping requirements.

Rental Order

Rental orders involve providing products or equipment for temporary use, typically following a subscription-based model. This order type is common in industries such as equipment rentals, outdoor gear, and fashion, where customers seek access to products without permanent ownership.

Effective order management for rental orders requires robust tracking mechanisms to monitor rental periods, automate reminders for returns or extensions, and ensure timely maintenance and restocking of rental inventory. Integration with billing systems and customer relationship management (CRM) tools is also essential for seamless subscription management and customer communication.


Subscription orders involve recurring purchases of products or services at regular intervals, such as monthly or annual subscriptions. This model has gained significant popularity across various industries, including consumer goods, media and entertainment, software, and even meal delivery services.

Seamless order management for subscriptions involves automating recurring billing and shipment processes, managing subscription upgrades or downgrades, and handling cancellations or pauses efficiently.Additionally, businesses must ensure inventory availability and timely replenishment to meet ongoing demand from their subscriber base.

By understanding and adapting to these diverse order types, businesses can better tailor their order management processes, ensuring efficient fulfillment and delivering an exceptional customer experience across all scenarios.

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Order Channels

In today's omni channel landscape, orders can originate from various channels, each with its unique requirements and integrations. Effective order management involves seamlessly consolidating orders from multiple sources into a centralized system for streamlined processing and fulfillment. Common order channels include:

Website Orders

E-commerce websites are often the primary order source for online businesses, requiring seamless integration with the order management system. This integration ensures real-time inventory updates, accurate order tracking, and efficient fulfillment processes.

To optimize website order management, businesses should prioritize user experience (UX) improvements, such as streamlined checkout processes, clear delivery timelines, and transparent order status updates.Additionally, leveraging robust e-commerce platforms with built-in order management capabilities can significantly enhance operational efficiency.


Online marketplaces have revolutionized the way businesses reach customers and distribute their products. However, managing orders across multiple marketplaces can be a significant challenge without proper integration. Some popular marketplaces include:


As one of the largest online marketplaces, businesses selling on Amazon must sync their order management systems with the platform to ensure efficient fulfillment, inventory management, and adherence to Amazon's stringent policies and performance metrics.


Etsy's marketplace caters to handmade and vintage product sellers, requiring integration with order management tools to streamline order processing, shipping, and customer communication.


With the rise of social commerce, businesses are leveraging Instagram as a sales channel, necessitating the incorporation of Instagram orders into their order management processes.


Facebook Shops and Marketplace orders need to be integrated with order management systems for centralized fulfillment, inventory management, and customer service.


As businesses increasingly leverage WhatsApp for commerce, order management solutions must accommodate orders received via this channel, ensuring seamless processing and tracking.

Seamless integration with marketplaces not only streamlines order management but also enables businesses to efficiently manage product listings, inventory levels, and customer communication across multiple platforms.

B2B Orders

Business-to-business (B2B) orders often involve specialized requirements, such as bulk ordering, negotiated pricing, and custom fulfillment processes. Effective order management for B2B orders necessitates accommodating these unique needs while maintaining operational efficiency.

Key considerations for B2B order management include specialized pricing and payment terms, volume discounts, custom packaging or labeling requirements, and dedicated sales and account management processes.Integrating order management systems with enterprise resource planning (ERP)and customer relationship management (CRM) tools can facilitate seamless coordination and ensure adherence to established agreements and service level agreements (SLAs).

Retail Orders 

For businesses with physical retail locations, order management must seamlessly integrate in-store purchases, inventory levels, and potential in-store pickups or returns. This omni channel approach ensures a consistent and cohesive customer experience across all touch points.

Effective order management for retail orders involves real-time synchronization of inventory levels across online and offline channels, enabling features like buy online, pick up in-store (BOPIS) or reserve online, pick up in-store (ROPIS). Additionally, integrating point-of-sale (POS) systems with the order management platform ensures accurate order tracking, streamlined returns processing, and centralized inventory management.

Direct Channels

Orders can also be received through direct channels such as email, phone, or in-person inquiries. While these channels may seem less prevalent in the digital age, they remain essential for maintaining personalized customer relationships and catering to specific market segments.

Efficient order management for direct channels often involves manual entry and tracking within the order management system.Businesses should establish clear protocols for capturing order details, payment processing, and order fulfillment to ensure consistency and accuracy.Integration with customer relationship management (CRM) tools can further enhance the direct order management process, providing a centralized repository for customer interactions and order history.

By effectively managing orders across these diverse channels, businesses can deliver a seamless and consistent customer experience, foster loyalty, and capitalize on growth opportunities in an increasingly omni channel world.

Order Workflows

At the heart of effective order management lies a well-defined and optimized order workflow. This workflow encompasses a series of interconnected processes that ensure orders are fulfilled accurately, efficiently, and in a timely manner.  Here's an overview of a sample order and how it moves across its lifecycle.

Sample Order Management Workflow

A typical order workflow consists of the following stages:

Inventory Allocation 

As orders are placed, available inventory must be accurately allocated or reserved to ensure fulfillment. Real-time inventory visibility across channels is crucial for optimal allocation, preventing overselling and minimizing stock outs or backorders.

Advanced order management systems leverage sophisticated algorithms and rules-based logic to prioritize order allocation based on factors such as order value, customer loyalty, and delivery timelines.Additionally, integration with inventory management systems and real-time data synchronization across sales channels enable accurate inventory tracking and allocation.

Warehouse Allocation 

For businesses with multiple warehouses or fulfillment centers, orders must be intelligently allocated to the appropriate location based on factors like proximity to the customer, inventory levels, and operational efficiency. Effective warehouse allocation can significantly impact delivery times, shipping costs, and overall customer satisfaction.

Order management systems often incorporate location-based inventory management capabilities, enabling businesses to segment their inventory across warehouses or fulfillment centers. By leveraging real-time inventory data and advanced algorithms, orders can be automatically routed to the optimal fulfillment location, minimizing shipping distances and transit times.

Additionally, businesses can implement rules-based allocation strategies, factoring invariables such as order volume, warehouse capacity, and seasonal demand patterns. For example, during peak periods, orders may be distributed across multiple fulfillment centers to balance workloads and ensure timely delivery.


The picking process involves retrieving ordered items from storage locations within the warehouse or fulfillment center. Efficient picking is crucial for maintaining productivity, accuracy, and overall order fulfillment speed.Several picking strategies exist, each with its own advantages and suitable applications:

Piece Picking

Piece picking, also known as discrete order picking, involves picking individual items one at a time for each order. This method is suitable for low-volume operations or orders with a limited number of items. While piece picking can be time-consuming, it minimizes the risk of picking errors and ensures order accuracy.

Batch Picking

Batch picking involves grouping multiple orders together and picking all required items in one pass. This approach can significantly improve efficiency by reducing travel time within the warehouse and leveraging economies of scale.Batch picking is particularly beneficial for high-volume operations or orders with similar item compositions.

Zone Picking

In zone picking, the warehouse is divided into zones, with pickers assigned to specific zones for specialized knowledge and reduced travel time. As orders move through the different zones, pickers retrieve the required items from their designated areas. Zone picking excels in large-scale operations with diverse product ranges, enabling pickers to develop expertise within their assigned zones.

Wave Picking

Wave picking involves releasing orders in batches or "waves" for simultaneous picking and processing. This strategy optimizes resource utilization by combining orders with similar item compositions or delivery destinations into waves. Wave picking is well-suited for high-volume operations with consistent order patterns and predictable demand.

Two-step Picking

The two-step picking approach separates the picking process into two distinct steps: order picking and order consolidation. In the first step, pickers retrieve items from storage locations and place them in a designated staging area. During the consolidation step, orders are assembled by combining the appropriate items from the staging area. This method can improve accuracy and productivity, particularly in complex operations with a high volume of orders and diverse product ranges.

The choice of picking strategy depends on factors such as order volume, product diversity, warehouse layout, and operational constraints. Many businesses employ a combination of these strategies to optimize efficiency and adapt to changing demand patterns.


Once items are picked, they must be securely packaged for shipment. The packing process often involves specialized packing materials, labeling, and quality checks to ensure safe delivery and adherence to carrier guidelines.

Efficient order management systems integrate with packing stations, enabling seamless data transfer and label printing. Packing instructions, including item-specific packaging requirements or customized branding elements, can be automatically generated and communicated to packing personnel.

Advanced packing systems may incorporate weight and dimension capturing capabilities, enabling accurate shipping cost calculations and facilitating compliance with carrier regulations. Additionally, businesses can implement quality control checks at this stage, verifying order accuracy and completeness before finalizing the shipment.

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The final step in the order fulfillment workflow involves dispatching the packaged orders for delivery. Businesses have various options to consider, each with its own advantages and considerations:

3PL Fulfillment

Outsourcing order fulfillment to a third-party logistics (3PL) provider can be a strategic choice for businesses seeking to leverage specialized expertise, scalable infrastructure, and flexible capacity. 3PLs offer a range of services, including warehousing, inventory management, order processing, and shipping.

Effective order management when using 3PL services involves seamless integration and data synchronization between the business's systems and the 3PL's platforms. This integration ensures real-time inventory visibility, accurate order tracking, and efficient communication throughout the fulfillment process.


Alternatively, businesses may choose to handle order shipping and delivery in-house, maintaining control over the entire fulfillment process. Self-fulfillment can be advantageous for businesses with unique shipping requirements, specialized product handling needs, or a desire for greater control over the customer experience.

Order management for self-fulfillment involves integrating with major carriers, automating shipping label generation, and optimizing picking and packing processes for efficiency. Additionally, businesses must ensure compliance with shipping regulations, implement tracking mechanisms, and establish robust returns management processes.

Hyperlocal Delivery

For businesses operating in densely populated areas or offering time-sensitive products or services, hyperlocal delivery can be a compelling strategy.Hyperlocal delivery involves offering same-day or expedited delivery within a limited geographical area, providing added convenience and customer satisfaction.

Order management for hyperlocal delivery requires seamless coordination with local delivery partners or in-house fleets. Real-time order tracking, dynamic route optimization, and efficient order batching are crucial for ensuring timely and cost-effective delivery. Additionally, businesses must establish clear service level agreements (SLAs) and set appropriate customer expectations regarding delivery times and fees.

Regardless of the chosen fulfillment approach, effective order management systems must integrate seamlessly with shipping carriers, facilitate accurate tracking and communication, and enable businesses to monitor and optimize their fulfillment processes continually.

Order Fulfillment

Order fulfillment is the culmination of the order management process, involving the actual delivery of products to the customer. Efficient fulfillment relies on streamlined workflows, accurate inventory management, and seamless coordination with carriers or delivery partners to meet customer expectations.

Key considerations for successful order fulfillment include:

Shipping Speed and Accuracy

Customers expect their orders to be delivered promptly and without errors. Businesses must strive to meet or exceed promised delivery timelines and ensure correct order fulfillment to foster customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Tracking and Communication

Providing real-time order tracking and timely communication is crucial for enhancing the customer experience. Order management systems should integrate with carrier platforms to enable accurate tracking updates and facilitate proactive communication regarding shipping delays or exceptions.

Returns Management

An efficient returns process is essential for maintaining customer trust and minimizing operational costs. Order management systems should streamline returns processing, enable easy returns initiation, and facilitate accurate inventory reconciliation upon product receipt.

Customized Fulfillment Requirements

Certain industries or product categories may have unique fulfillment requirements, such as temperature-controlled shipping, specialized packaging, or handling hazardous materials. Order management systems must accommodate these specialized needs to ensure regulatory compliance and product integrity.

Scalability and Flexibility

As businesses grow and evolve, their order management and fulfillment processes must be scalable and adaptable. Modular systems that can accommodate fluctuations in order volumes, new sales channels, or changes in fulfillment strategies are essential for long-term success.

By optimizing order fulfillment processes, businesses can not only meet but exceed customer expectations, foster loyalty, and drive growth. Continuous monitoring and refinement of fulfillment operations, supported by robust order management systems, are key to staying competitive in an increasingly demanding market.

Inventory Allocation

Proper inventory allocation is critical for successful order management, as it ensures that sufficient stock is available to meet customer demand while avoiding overstocking or under stocking situations. Effective inventory allocation involves several key components:

Real-time Inventory Visibility

To make informed allocation decisions, businesses need real-time visibility into their inventory levels across all sales channels, warehouses, and fulfillment centers. This visibility is achieved through seamless integration between the order management system and inventory management tools, enabling accurate tracking of stock movements and availability.

Accurate Forecasting

Demand forecasting plays a crucial role in inventory allocation by anticipating future requirements and informing replenishment decisions. Order management systems with advanced forecasting capabilities can analyze historical sales data, seasonal patterns, and market trends to generate accurate demand projections, enabling proactive inventory management and minimizing stock outs or excess inventory.

Inventory Optimization

Inventory optimization involves striking the right balance between having sufficient stock to meet customer demand and avoiding excessive inventory carrying costs.Order management systems can leverage sophisticated algorithms and rules-based logic to optimize inventory levels across product lines, sales channels, and locations.

Factors such as lead times, safety stock requirements, product life cycles, and inventory holding costs are taken into account to determine optimal reorder points and quantities. Additionally, businesses can implement strategies like vendor-managed inventory (VMI) or just-in-time (JIT) inventory management to further streamline inventory allocation and reduce carrying costs.

Multi-channel Integration

In an omni channel environment, inventory allocation must consider all sales channels and fulfillment locations. Order management systems should seamlessly integrate with e-commerce platforms, marketplaces, retail point-of-sale (POS) systems, and enterprise resource planning (ERP) solutions to provide a unified view of inventory across the entire business.

This integration enables businesses to allocate inventory intelligently, leveraging real-time data from multiple sources. For example, if an online order depletes inventory at a specific warehouse, the system can automatically allocate the next order to a different fulfillment location with available stock, ensuring uninterrupted order fulfillment.

Replenishment Automation

Efficient replenishment processes are essential for maintaining optimal inventory levels and avoiding stock outs or excess inventory situations. Advanced order management systems can automate replenishment workflows by generating purchase orders or transfer requests based on predefined reorder points, safety stock levels, and demand forecasts.

This automation not only streamlines the replenishment process but also minimizes the risk of human error and ensures timely restocking. Additionally, businesses can leverage vendor collaboration and integration capabilities to facilitate seamless communication and coordination with suppliers, enabling just-in-time inventory management.

Inventory Aging and Lifecycle Management

Effective inventory allocation also involves managing product lifecycles and minimizing the risk of obsolescence or spoilage. Order management systems should incorporate inventory aging capabilities, enabling businesses to identify slow-moving or obsolete items and implement strategies such as promotional pricing, bundles, or clearance sales to optimize inventory turnover.

For perishable or time-sensitive products, businesses can leverage advanced order management features like lot traceability, expiration date tracking, and first-in-first-out (FIFO) or first-expiry-first-out (FEFO) inventory allocation rules to ensure product freshness and minimize waste.

By implementing robust inventory allocation strategies supported by advanced order management systems, businesses can improve operational efficiency, reduce carrying costs, and enhance customer satisfaction through reliable order fulfillment and product availability.

Order Management KPIs

To measure the effectiveness of your order management system and identify areas for improvement, it is essential to track and analyze key performance indicators (KPIs). These metrics provide valuable insights into the efficiency and success of your order management processes, enabling data-driven decision-making and continuous optimization. Here are some crucial order management KPIs to consider:

% On-time Fulfillment

This metric measures the percentage of orders delivered within the promised timeframe, indicating your ability to meet customer expectations and highlighting areas for improvement in the fulfillment process. On-time fulfillment is critical for customer satisfaction and loyalty, as delays can lead to negative experiences and potential loss of business.

To calculate this KPI, divide the number of orders delivered on time by the total number of orders shipped during a specific period.

% Orders Placed

Tracking the percentage of orders successfully placed versus abandoned carts can reveal potential friction points in the ordering process, informing optimizations for a smoother customer experience. A high cart abandonment rate may indicate issues with checkout processes, pricing transparency, or other barriers to conversion.

To calculate this KPI, divide the number of orders placed by the total number of initiated transactions (orders placed + abandoned carts) during a specific period.

Order Feedback

Collecting and analyzing customer feedback on the ordering and delivery experience can identify areas for improvement and drive customer satisfaction, fostering loyalty and repeat business. Feedback can be gathered through post-purchase surveys, reviews, or direct customer interactions, providing valuable insights into pain points, service quality, and overall customer sentiment.

Businesses should track metrics such as NetPromoter Score (NPS), Customer Satisfaction (CSAT) scores, and sentiment analysis to gauge customer perceptions and prioritize improvements based on feedback.

Order Cycle Time

Order cycle time measures the duration from order placement to delivery, providing insights into the efficiency of your fulfillment processes. Longer cycle times can negatively impact customer satisfaction and potentially result in lost sales or increased costs.

To calculate this KPI, track the time elapsed between order placement and delivery for each order, and analyze the average or median cycle time across a specific period.

Order Accuracy

Order accuracy refers to the percentage of orders fulfilled correctly, without errors in item selection, quantities, or shipping details. Inaccurate orders can lead to customer dissatisfaction, returns, and additional operational costs.

To calculate this KPI, divide the number of accurate orders by the total number of orders fulfilled during a specific period.

Fulfillment Cost per Order

Tracking the average cost associated with fulfilling each order can help identify opportunities for cost optimization and profitability improvement. This KPI should consider various cost components, such as labor, shipping, packaging, and any third-party fulfillment fees.

To calculate this KPI, divide the total fulfillment costs by the number of orders fulfilled during a specific period.

Inventory Turnover Ratio

The inventory turnover ratio measures the number of times inventory is sold and replaced over a given period, providing insights into inventory management efficiency and potential overstocking or under stocking issues.

To calculate this KPI, divide the cost of goods sold by the average inventory value during a specific period.

By regularly monitoring and analyzing these order management KPIs, businesses can gain valuable insights into their operational performance, identify bottlenecks or areas for improvement, and make data-driven decisions to optimize their order management processes continually.

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Mastering the art of order management is vital for businesses seeking to deliver exceptional customer experiences, optimize operational efficiency, and drive growth. By understanding the intricacies of order types, channels, workflows, and fulfillment strategies, businesses can tailor their order management processes to meet the unique demands of their industry and customer base.

Effective order management relies on seamless integration of various systems and platforms, real-time data visibility, and continuous process optimization. Leveraging advanced order management solutions and best practices can empower businesses to streamline operations, minimize errors, and enhance customer satisfaction through reliable and efficient order fulfillment.

As the e-commerce landscape continues to evolve, businesses must remain agile and adaptable, continually refining their order management strategies to stay ahead of the curve. By embracing innovation, data-driven decision-making, and a customer-centric approach, businesses cannot only meet but exceed customer expectations, fostering loyalty and long-term success in an increasingly competitive marketplace.

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